• Turkey and Russia: Escalation unlikely

    The downing of the SU-24 Russian bomber by the Turkish Air Force increases the risk of a potential open military confrontation between Turkey and Russia, with the potential involvement of NATO. However, this is unlikely.

  • It Was Left to Merkel to Take the Lead

    Viola von Cramon-Taubadel: Merkel's handling of the refugee crisis is a result of dealing with the crisis in Greece earlier this year. In that time she was strongly criticised. Her stand in the refugee crisis is more comfortable for the southern Member States of the EU.

  • The Return of the Franco-Russian Alliance?

    Both France and Russia do not have the same way of reading the conflict in the Middle East nor the same objectives. Furthermore, the coordination of French and Russian forces will be necessarily limited by the lack of convergence of military procedures.

  • Reflections on post-Soviet Memory

    Poland is kind of on the border between the western and eastern halves of memory. Differences in the forms of remembering depend on the cultural, political and social situation, but also on the public psyche.

  • Eurasian Union vs. Fascist Eurasia

    Aleksandr Dugin, unlike Putin, advocates the creation of a completely new empire rather than the restoration of the old one. "Eurasia" as envisioned by Dugin would not restore Czarist Russia or continue the Soviet Union.

  • Diplomacy of Pastoral Letters

    In democratic Poland, the 1965 “Pastoral Letter of the Polish Bishops to their German Brothers” became a model in the reconciliation process, not only with the Germany but also with Poland’s other neighbours.

  • To do Nothing is Provocative

    Linas Linkevičius, foreign minister of Lithuania: "The situation in Ukraine is far from being stable. There is some illusion as a result of elements of the ceasefire. At the moment there are no new victims of the conflict, which is probably the only positive thing."

  • Can Russia Use the Paris Attacks to its Advantage?

    On the one hand, Russia is pursuing its divide and rule policy in the EU. On the other hand, ISIS is playing its anti-western games as well. It is very difficult not to notice that the long-term goals of both Russia and ISIS in Europe are extraordinarily similar.

  • Migration, Fear it Not

    Basil Kerski: "After our return from Iraq, my beginnings in the Polish school were very difficult. My schoolmates would shout at me 'Arab', 'Arab'. However, after half a year, I became an integral part of the class."

  • An Unending Cycle of Violence

    The Armenian and Azerbaijan militaries have been bombarding each other more intensively since the beginning of September 2015.

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